Friday, March 27, 2020

Barbie Essays - Barbie, Mattel, Ken, Ruth Handler, Doll, BookBarbie

Barbie Since the beginning of time, toys have often been an indicator of the way a society behaves, and how they interact with their children. For example, in ancient Greece, artifacts recovered there testify that children were simply not given toys to play with as in the modern world. The cruel ritual of leaving a sick child on a hillside for dead, seems to indicate a lack of attention to the young (Lord 16). The same is true of today's society. As you can see with the number of toy stores in our society, we find toys of great value to our lives and enjoy giving them to children as gifts. Ask just about any young girl what she wants for Christmas and you'll undoubtedly get the same answer: ?A Barbie.? But what exactly has caused this baby boomer Barbie craze, and how did the entire world get so caught up in it? The answer lies in Ruth Handler's vision for the first children's adult doll. Mrs. Handler's eleven and one-half-inch chunk of plastic began causing problems even before it's public debut in 1959, yet has managed to become one of America's favorite dolls. Ruth Handler and her two young children, Barbara and Ken, were merely sightseeing in Lucerne, Switzerland, when Mrs. Handler first saw the doll she herself had been trying to create (Lord 29). In the window of a small gift shop was an eleven and one-half-inch tall plastic doll with a slender woman's body and a long blond ponytail. Her name was Lilli (?Bad Girl? 1). She had been created from a cartoon character in a West German tabloid similar to the National Inquirer (Lord 8). Dressed provocatively, and with a seductive look in her eye, Lilli had become a ?popular pornographic gag gift for men? (?Bad Girl? 1). Excited to see her long-time idea a reality, Mrs. Handler bought three of the dolls and hurried home to begin work on her own doll (?Bad Girl? 2). It was 1956, and within three years, Mattel Creations began marketing the ?teenage fashion model? as ?a new kind of doll from real life? (Tosa 30). The new doll, deemed ?Barbie?, was named after her own daughter Barbara, who's many y ears of play with paper dolls had actually inspired her to begin designing the three-dimensional adult doll (Lord 30). Though Mrs. Handler's version of the doll was not as racy or alluring as Lilli, her imitation of the ?German streetwalker? would come back to haunt her many years later (?Bad Girl? 2). But for now, the Barbie doll would launch Ruth Handler and her company, ?Mattel Creations?, into what was soon to be a successful national corporation. In fact, the Barbie doll was so popular that three years after her release in 1959 Mattel was still filling orders from her first year (Long 17). It wasn't until the late 1960's that critics began ?comparing Barbie to a Playboy Bunny and calling her a corrupter of youth? (?Bad Girl? 3). One woman commented, ?She's an absurd representation of what a woman should be? (?Bad Girl? 3)-?and that's exactly what many others thought she was, too. With such impossible real-life measurements of 5'9? tall, 36?-18?-33? bust, waist, and hip (Benstock and Ferriss 35), it's easy to see why mothers across the country banned the doll from their homes and refused to let their impressionable young daughters be influenced by a piece of painted plastic (Bestock and Ferriss 35). Since dolls have often been responsible for teaching children what society deems important or beautiful, many concerned parents wondered why Mattel did not design a doll that taught more valuable lessons than dressing pretty and being dangerously skinny (Edut 19)? Who said a runway model was best suited for teaching a child what is beautiful anyway? ?According to a Mattel sp okesperson, a Kate Moss figure is better suited for today's fashions? (Edut 19), and that is one reason why Barbie must be so disproportional. Actually, another reason for Barbie's anorexic figure can be traced back long before Kate Moss and the fashion runway. Barbie was originally designed as a doll with a body one-sixth the size of a real person, who would wear clothes made from

Touro University International Essays (466 words) -

Touro University International James L. White ETH 501 Module 4, Session Long Project Dr. Steven J. Gold INTRODUCTION The purpose of this report is to describe any sense of barriers in women's advancement in my firm or if there have been such barriers in the past. This report will provide the reader with some information about the company I work for and some facts about the barriers women have been through. By discussing these topics I hope to offer some knowledge about my organization. I will conclude this report with a brief summary of the entire analysis, highlighting some of the most significant parts that the report contains. BARRIERS As you can recall; I am in the military and we train and mentor Health Service Management Apprentice. In an article entitled Amazing Women in War and Peace by Retired Captain Barbara A. Wilson she explained, "In October of 1778 Deborah Samson of Plimpton, Massachusetts disguised herself as a young man and presented herself to the American army as a willing volunteer to oppose the common enemy. She enlisted for the whole term of the war as Robert Shirtliffe and served in the company of Captain Nathan Thayer of Medway, Massachusetts." (Barbara, 1996) Women for years to come tried to join the military service only to be denied because of their gender. In May 1942 the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps was created to serve at aircraft service stations which freed men to do other vital duties needed by the military. In the spring of 1943 the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps was changed to the Women's Air Corp's. It was not until 8 July 1948 that the first woman, Esther M. Blake, was able to join the Air Force. In accordance with 5 U.S.C 2301. Merit Systems Principles," Recruitment should be from qualified individuals from appropriate sources in any endeavor to achieve a work force from all segments of society, and selection and advancement should be determined solely on the basis of relative ability, knowledge, and skills, after fair and open competition which assures that all receive equal opportunity." 5 U.S.C, 2006). What that means is no one can be denied employment because of their gender. This is one barrier that women like Deborah Samson and Esther M. Blake have paved the way to overcome. CONCLUSION In today's Air Force you can see that women play a big role in the military mission serving in many vital roles, from pilots to ground troops. History has taught us that we lose out on a lot of good ideas and employees if we discriminate against an individual because of race, gender, religion, etc... WORK CITIED 1. Amazing Women in War and Peace by Retired Captain Barbara A. Wilson, retrieved on 21 August 2006 from http://coelacanth.aug.com/captbarb/ 2. Air Force Pamphlet 36-2241 Volume 1, retrieved 25 August 2006 3. Retrieved 21 August 2006 from http://www.mspb.gov/

Friday, March 6, 2020

Ethics and Social Responsibility in International Business

Ethics and Social Responsibility in International Business The importance of ethics in the global business environment needs to be over emphasized. Nowadays, the need for ideal ethical behavior within organizations is paramount if organizations are to avoid potential lawsuits and other uncertainties in their operations as new business trends emerge on a daily basis causing problems to organizations and end users.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Ethics and Social Responsibility in International Business specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Public scandals of corporate malfeasance and malpractices, which and have even claimed death of many organizations, have profoundly influenced the public perception of many multinational organizations. Cases in point are large organizations such as Enron, Arthur Andersen and WorldCom among others. The recent expansion of global business as well as decline of trade barriers has necessitated the world over to further underpin the interes t in the topics of ethical behavior and social responsibility. On top of this, human rights and environmental conservation are getting more recognition with every passing day in both academic as well as commercial circles. As multinational organizations expand globally and establish operations in foreign markets, ethical conduct of their officers and employees gain more importance since the cultural diversity that usually accompany such expansion may compromise the much shared cultural and ethical values observable in the more homogeneous organizations (Morf, Duffy, et al. 1999 ). Although understanding of other cultures and acknowledgement of differences among them will enhance the cross-cultural communication, it may not be enough to offer ideal structures of proper ethical behavior in organizations. In the academic circles, the culture-based consequentiality model is developed to explain among other things, how cultural differences influence the ethical perceptions as well as act ions of individuals engaged in making decisions with ethical overtones. Multinationals need to come to terms with the legal and moral atmosphere in which they operate. And above all, they need to establish an environment that fosters ethical behavior, because in the final analysis to do otherwise eats into their profitability. In contrast to this opinion, some scholars advanced the theory of Virtuous Ethics, which is defined as a theory that focuses mainly on an individuals moral character. According to these scholars, marketing researchers attach little importance to virtuous ethics. Furthermore, they propose that without considering virtuous ethics, an elaborate analysis of the ethical character of marketing decision makers and their strategies cannot be attained.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Strategies such as the codes of ethics represent one means of achieving the ultimate goal of having ethical international responsibility of business worldwide. There are numerous ethical responsibilities faced by multinational organizations. Therefore, just as one can value an individual’s culture by his or her actions and personal activities, ethical climate can be observed on a larger scale; in this case, the organization. Here, ethical climate is the employee’s perception of the norms of an organization (Bartels et al., 1998). Organizations that have a robust ethical climate experience few serious ethical problems and are more successful in coping with such problems. Their research suggests that it is vital for managers to consider developing strong ethical climates in order to equip organizational members with the capability to deal with ethical dilemmas. They have to oversee the development and maintenance of clear and robust set of norms to promote good ethical behavior. As Laczniak, et al (2007) has pointed out an organ ization’s codes of ethics and enforcement of rules goes a long way in controlling the direct behavior of social entities. Based on the above analysis, multinationals must acknowledge the need for a homogenous code of business ethics. Without such a code, the conduct of players in this field will be unpredictable. Furthermore, national governments need to know that the most effective way of safeguarding their citizens, their national interests, and that of the global environment against the vagaries of the global business depend on the development, adoption and enforcement of such a code. However, a surge of momentum has been witnessed the world over owing to increasing interest and awareness of the parties concerned. Many multinational companies such as Toyota, Siemens, General Mills and Johnson Johnson among others have written guidelines that elaborately and explicitly detail how employees are expected to treat suppliers, customers, competitors, as well as other parties. T here are those that have formulated formal codes of ethics- written statements about the values and ethical standards that guide the institutions’ operationsAdvertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Ethics and Social Responsibility in International Business specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some multinational companies deal with ethical issues proactively, by giving their employees training on how to handle ethical dilemmas. At Boeing, for instance, line managers are responsible for overseeing training sessions for other employees, and the company also has an ethics committee that answers directly to the board of directors. The training sessions entail discussions of various ethical dilemmas that employees might face and how best to handle them. Organizational practices as well as corporate culture also have an influence on the management of ethical behavior. If leaders in a firm conduct themselves in an ethic al manner and violations of ethical standards are promptly and ideally addressed, then everyone in the organization will recognize that the firm expects them to conduct themselves in an ethical manner. If leaders appear to be above the set ethical standards or either trivialize or ignore unethical behaviors, then the wrong message is sent to the employees. References Bartels L.K. et al. (1998). The Relationship between Ethical Climate and Ethical Problems within Human Resource Management†, Journal of Business Ethics Vol. 17, 799-804. Laczniak, G. R. and Inderrieden J. (2007). The Influence of Stated Organizational Concern upon Ethical Decision Making, Journal of Business Ethics. Vol 6, 297-307. Morf, Duffy A., et al. (1999). A Survey of Ethics Officers in Large Organizations, Journal of Business Ethics. Vol 20, 265-271

Hindu Mythology Research Paper Example

Hindu Mythology Research Paper Example Hindu Mythology Paper Hindu Mythology Paper In Hindu mythology, dance is believed to have been conceived by Brahma. Brahma inspired the sage Bharata Muni to write the Natya Shastra, a treatise on performing arts, from which a codified practice of dance and drama emerged. [3] He used pathya (words) from the Rigveda, abhinaya (gestures) from the Yajurveda, geet (music) from the Samaveda and rasa (emotions) from the Atharvaveda to form the Natyaveda (body of knowledge about dance). [4]The best-known of Hindu deities- Shiva, Kali and Krishna- are typically represented dancing. 5] Shivas cosmic dance, tandava, Kalis dance of creation and destruction and Krishnas dance with the gopikas (cow-herd girls)- Rasa Lila- are popular motifs in Hindu mythology. [6] In ancient India, there were no dedicated auditorium halls or theaters, and dance was usually a functional activity dedicated to worship, entertainment or leisure. Dancers usually performed in temples, on festive occasions and seasonal harvests. Dance was performed on a regular basis before deities as a form of worship. 7] Even in modern India, deities are invoked through religious folk dance forms from ancient times. [8] Classical dance forms such asBharata Natyam use mudras or hand gestures also to retell episodes of mythological tales such as the slaying of Kaliya by Krishna. [9] Gradually dancers, particularly from South India, moved from temples to houses of royal families where they performed exclusively for royalty. [10] India offers a number of classical Indian dance forms, each of which can be traced to different parts of the country. Classical and folk dance forms also emerged from Indian traditions, epics and mythology. [11] There are many Indian folk dances such as Bhangra, Bihu, Ghumura Dance, Sambalpuri,Chhau and Garba and special dances observed in regional festivals such as Lohri[12] and Navratri. [13][14] The presentation of Indian dance styles in film, Hindi Cinema, has exposed the range of dance in India to a global audience. [1 Once Gods called a council and were surprised to find out that they had nothing to do. There was absolutely nothing to occupy their minds with or draw their attention to. They realized that they must put an end to such situation and after taking council with each other they decided to retell stories with the help of gestures and motions. So the art of dance and drama came into being. All this happened approximately in the era which is called the Golden Age or Krita Yuga in Indian mythology. No one heard anything about the art of neither dance nor drama then. The Golden Age lasted for hundreds of thousands of years and then according to cosmic laws Krita Yuga was replaced by Treta Yuga and everything in the world underwent great changes. Ideals, morals, ethics were distorted. People were unsatisfied and bored. And then Indra, after calling the council of Gods suggested that they made a request to Brahma to create such an art that would be pleasant for both eyes and ears like the most beautiful things in the world, the art for the highest castes and at the same time available even to the lowest castes which were forbidden to study Vedas. The Lord Brahma heeded their request and went into the state of meditation. In his mind he called for the four sacred Vedas, the embodiment of the eternal truths in Hinduism, and took the very essence from each of the four.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Costs in Arbitration Proceedings and Tribunals Assignment

Costs in Arbitration Proceedings and Tribunals - Assignment Example the arbitrators and administrative expenses set by the tribunal, in agreement with the scale in power at the instance of the start of the arbitral proceedings, also the fees and expenses of given experts selected by the Arbitral Tribunal and the sensible legal and other costs sustained by the parties for the arbitration. Miss Duval as arbitrator must itemize expenses on the statement of cost in a layout certified by the General Counsel and must state the name and contacts to which payment must be made (Booter Construction Limited). In the situation whereby there is need for rate adjustment proceeding, every statement of cost must indicate each partys portion of the sum cost and the sum owed by that party, or otherwise, reflects the technique of payment approved upon by the arbitrator and parties. The procedure of assessment of costs involve systematic approach whereby Miss Duval must evaluate the costs involve and fairly make the award of costs, in accordance to existing laws and reg ulation. The Arbitration Act 1996 regulation would assist Miss Duval in the assessment of costs as it gives some standards to be followed by arbitrators in the assessment of the costs. All the principles are not mandatory as in some cases the parties may contract out. According to Section 61 chapter two, the arbitrator is suppose to award costs on the broad principle that costs should be attached to the event in case the two parties do not contract out. This means that the arbitrator, in order to come up with the costs; need to follow the case and its unique circumstances. According to section 63 of arbitration Act 1996 that discusses the recoverable costs of the arbitration.1 Section 1 declares that the parties are at liberty to concur what expenses and fees of the arbitration are recoverable. These provisions can assist Miss Duval in the procedure of assessing the cost since all the provisions and requirements are stipulated. This case declares that Miss Duval has been instructed to

Electric fish in danger Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Electric fish in danger - Essay Example The Greeks have referred to electric fish as "narke" which means "numbness" and the ancient Greeks were aware of the numbing power of the electric fish. There are evidences from ancient history to prove that the people of the past have effectively used the numbing properties electric fish in medical treatment. (Moller, 584) Thus, the electric fish has long enthralled human beings through its specific nature and capabilities and it continues to arouse crucial interest among the scholars of the contemporary world. The electric fish species can be found in the sea as well as in the freshwater rivers of certain regions such as South America and Africa. It is important to comprehend that the electric fish are generally divided into three categories: the strongly electric, the weakly electric and fish that can detect electricity but do not generate electricity. The most significant fishes in the first category, i.e. strongly electric fish, are electric eel, electric catfish, and electric r ays, while knife fish and elephant nose are categorized as weakly electric fish. However, many fishes such as sharks, rays, paddle fish, and catfishes can detect electric fields, whereas they cannot generate electric fields, and therefore they belong to the third category of electric fish. ... organ discharge, its means of communication, the various distinctions of electric fish in ecology, the different types of dangers encountered by the species, the potential pollutants affecting its existence, and how ecological factors influence the pattern and frequency ranges occupied by male and female fishes. Whereas the strongly electric fish produce several hundreds of volts of electricity, in the weakly electric fish the voltage generally does not exceed one volt. Electric fish has been the center of attraction in various scholarly discussions due to its diverse characteristics and the dangers confronting the existence of this species have offered a new area of researches. It is important to comprehend how the electric fish produce very strong electricity to shock large animals. According to the Columbia Encyclopedia, electric fish is the name for various fish which produce electricity by way of organs generally developed from modified muscle tissue. Significantly, the electric fish produce electricity at different levels and they mainly use this electric discharge to stun the prey. It is also found that the electric eel, otherwise called electrophorus electricus, which is a South American freshwater fish related to the carp, has organs along the ventral surface competent enough to produce from 450 to 600 volts of electricity. Another important electric fish, the electric ray, or torpedo, which is a freshwater electric catfish with a jellylike subcutaneous electric organ (probably of epidermal origin) that extends over the whole body, also produces several volts of electricity. There are also various species of stargazer fish which produce high volts of electricity and attract the curiosity of humans. There have been significant researches into the

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Building Watson Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Building Watson - Case Study Example It would be advisable to further the research in order to achieve the benefits in that future. Although able to process information much faster, innately, than a human being it would be perceived to have an advantage, and yet it gave a completely inaccurate answer to a question posed, which means that there is still something lacking in the decision making skills as to when to answer. If a human being is not certain of an answer they would likely decline to offer an answer; however, Watson opted to answer and the answer delivered with low artificial intellectual certainty was absolutely wrong. Ultimately, Watson sets precedent and encourages the further study and investment in the research and development of these technologies. The unpredictability and sense of choice that human beings possess is still something that cannot be achieved synthetically (Shih, 2012). Computers possess none of the emotional motivations of humanity, at least not in this case or technology level, these infl uences create the ethical, logical, and moral uses of our knowledge and thought. There is a dynamic nature to human thought, organic thought, which has yet to be captured within the programming of artificial intelligence and computer technologies. ... on is a sophisticated computer and computers are beneficial for their ability to compute, calculate, retrieve, and analyze data at incredible speeds, far faster than a human brain (Shih, 2012).A trivia challenge of, both, common knowledge and specialized knowledge should be an ideal task for a computer to do decidedly well, ideally, better than any human opponent. However, there are a number of personality and psychological traits possessed by human beings that are completely irrelevant to computer intelligence, including compulsive liars to truth tellers and fair players and misdirecting ones. These traits are just a few, of what are easily, thousands of possible emotional, mental, and behavioral responses attributable to human beings; none of which are shared by artificial intelligence (Shih, 2012).Given these parameters, can a computer win a match of not only knowledge but, also, of strategy and skilled game play? Although, throughout the course of the game, Watson did quite well at answering many questions correctly, however when it gave one particular inaccurate answer that was not just wrong, it was unbelievably wrong. When asked to name the U.S. state had their largest airport named after a WWII hero and their largest city named after a WWII battle, Watson answered, â€Å"Toronto† (Shih, 2012). Toronto is not a U.S. city, in the United States at all, and has absolutely nothing to do with the questions involving WWII namesakes; the degree of wrong was surprising to designers and proved that greater study will need to be done to determine why it chose an answer so obviously incorrect and then choosing to share that answer with any â€Å"programming† common sense that allowed to think that the answer could be correct would be extremely important. Watson was